So What’s ‘Leaky Gut’?

The intestinal barrier is a crucial barrier against the external environment. Made up of a single layer of cells, the intestinal barrier is selectively permeable, allowing the absorption of nutrients, electrolytes and water, whilst making an effective defence against toxins, antigens and intestinal microflora. Below this physical barrier is the body’s second line of defence, the immune system, ready and waiting to act upon any unwanted or unrecognised molecules.

Leaky gut or intestinal permeability occurs when this barrier, the mucosal membrane, becomes compromised allowing potentially harmful molecules to enter the interstitial fluid and then into the bloodstream. This is the cue for various mechanisms of the immune system like leucocytes and macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils to kick into action to stop any of this foreign matter entering the bloodstream. White blood cells that have quietly been mopping up unwanted material go into over-drive and call for help, stimulating an inflammatory response.

This single layer of cells, enterocytes are cemented together by tight junction proteins creating the intestinal barrier. It was recently discovered (Fasano 2000) that a human protein called Zonulin was responsible for regulating these tight junctions. Zonulin causes the ‘cement’ to give up its hold between cells resulting in the gut lining becoming loose as they separate. The intestinal lining becomes ‘permeable’. The mechanisms of Zonulin release is still being studied, suffice to say the wrong bacteria or a condition known as Small Intestinal Bacterial Over-growth (SIBO) and plant lectins, like Gluten (grains) and Candida over-growth (high sugar diet), have been identified as major triggers. 

Normally bacteria in the gut play a crucial role in actively maintaining a healthy intestinal barrier but when their composition and their location in the gut goes wrong, the resulting damage can cause abdominal pain and bloating, flatulence, reflux, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, inflammation and poor absorption of micronutrients. The immune response can become exaggerated and disordered. SIBO has been linked with autoimmune disorders like diabetes, hypothyroidism, multiple sclerosis and coeliac disease, obesity and many other conditions.  This disturbed or damaged gut can result in food allergies and sensitivities, skin disorders such as acne and rosacea, and generalised inflammation. Mal-absorption of nutrients is likely to lead to deficiencies of iron, B12, calcium, zinc and fat-soluble vitamins A, D & E. These deficiencies result in fatigue, anaemia, weight loss, as well as mood and behavioural disorders like anxiety, depression and exaggerate conditions like ADHD and autism.

A combination of other things like the environmental toxins, chemicals like glyphosate, medications and alcohol, age, stress and lack of sleep can also lead to either Zonulin dysfunction and / or damage to the equilibrium of the microbiome. Either way the tight junctions give way and toxins or partially digested material is able to enter the bloodstream. The good news is, these enterocytes are renewing all the time and depending upon the level of damage, the lining of the gut will repair and re-new anywhere between 2 and 6 weeks. Consuming grains with gluten will lead to ‘leaky gut’ but depending upon the frequency, this sort of damage can repair in a relatively short time. However over time complications can arise and the damage may take longer to repair and if gluten and other lectins are consumed several times a day, seven days a week the gut is never given a chance to ‘heal’.

Come and talk to me about minimising damage to your gut, what it takes to eat heal and maintain a healthy gut lining, to calm your immune system and avoid autoimmune conditions developing. Most people don’t show any symptoms of chronic disease and inflammation until the damage is done, until a doctor diagnoses a condition.   I see this inflammation in people all the time, dry flaky skin, rashes, acne, aching joints, flushed faces, bags under their eyes, fatigue and brain fog. The indicators are there. Don’t let disease develop. Change your diet. leaky gut


So, why should we avoid grains?


Should we avoid eating grains and grain products? I believe we should avoid them and  ignore current food guidelines.

Dr. William Davis is an American cardiologist who, following decades of clinical studies and observations has witnessed extraordinary results after putting his patients on a wheat free diet. His book ‘Wheat Belly’ makes a compelling case against wheat. Dr David Perlmutter, a practicing neurologist, is also an advocate of a ‘grain free’ diet in his book ‘Grain Brain’.

More and more chronic diseases are emerging, and more and more people are becoming acutely unwell in their old age, requiring medication for an increasing number of life threatening conditions. According to recent reports half of all Americans suffer some form of chronic condition. Many of these conditions are related to our increasing reliance upon grains. We eat grains for breakfast lunch and tea, in our tea breaks and in some cases it is put in our medications and personal care products.

The 14 chromosome wild wheat, Einkorn wheat, is vastly different to modern, 18-inch high, 42-chromosome wheat. The proteins of this ancient wheat are completely different, which make it slightly easier to digest. There is less gluten as well, often making it acceptable to gluten sensitive people but not those with celiac disorder. I say slightly easier to digest because humans are not equipped to eat grasses. We evolved without the necessary digestive apparatus to eat and digest grasses, which include seeds. Goats, cattle and sheep (ruminants) however have evolved to eat grasses, they have teeth that grow continuously – the silica in the cells of grasses wear them down – they have four stomach chambers: three fermentation chambers (rumen, reticulum and omasum), followed by one chamber (abomasum) that uses stomach acid for digestion and they have a unique micro biome specialised to digest them. We simply do not have the specific organs to deal with grasses, including their seeds, like wheat rye barley, oats and rice. For more ninety-nine per cent of our time as humans on earth, we did not eat grains.

Archaeologists can tell you when we started. They will point to a sudden occurrence of evidence of tooth decay, of abscesses and mal formation. They will point to a doubling of arthritis and they will observe humans became shorter. These conditions appeared when hunters became agriculturalists.

When humankind started to find hunting difficult, when the population reached a critical mass, they turned to growing their food. They started selectively bred their plants for pest resistance, saving the seed of those that grew well. In doing so they were selecting strains with the highest pest resistant compounds like phytates. We know now that phytates bind to certain dietary minerals including iron, zinc, manganese and to a lesser extent calcium, which will slow or hinder their absorption. This makes them what we might call an ‘antinutrient’.

All plants contain lectins, another plant protein and another plant defence mechanism. They occur in most plant foods, for example tomatoes, lentils, peas, grains and legumes. They bind together cell membranes and cannot be digested properly by humans. They also can be termed ‘antinutrients’ in that they change the balance of the gut microflora and contribute to ‘leaky gut’ by binding to receptor sites on the intestinal mucosal cells. This interfers with the absorption of nutrients across the intestinal wall.  Wheat and grains are some of the plants highest in lectins. Dr Gundry has written extensively about lectins in his book, “The Plant Paradox: The Hidden Dangers in ‘Healthy’ Foods That Cause Disease and Weight Gain.” He claims a lectin known as wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), is actually one of the most efficient ways to induce heart disease in experimental animals and is far more of a concern than another lectin, gluten. Lectins will also cause harm through what is called ‘molecular mimicry’. For example, by mimicking proteins of the thyroid gland or of joint spaces, lectins can cause the body to attack the thyroid causing Hashimotos and will contribute to rheumatoid arthritis. These diseases start when lectins and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), also known as endotoxins, penetrate the gut wall, which stimulates a very strong immune response.

Consuming wheat and grains is like sugars; they provoke the release of blood insulin, a process that stimulates accumulation of visceral fat. The cells of visceral fat produce leptin, a hormone that makes you feel full, however when someone becomes obese, the body’s cells develop resistance to leptin. Leptin receptors can’t bind with the hormone leptin to deliver that message of fullness to the brain. So the feeling of hunger persists and cycle of eating continues. So Gliadin proteins unique to wheat, increased through selective breeding and altered in amino acid structure from their non-genetically-altered predecessors, actually act as appetite stimulants.

Dr William Davis explains that an increase in visceral fat will cause an increase in the expression of aromatase. Aromatase is an enzyme that converts testosterone to oestrogen. This will cause impaired libido in males and females due to lower testosterone, higher oestrogen levels. It is likely to cause growth of breasts in both males and females. This means the development of man breasts in males and the increased breast cancer risk in females. Dr Davis goes on to explain that in addition to the visceral fat aromatase effect, the A5 pentapeptide derived from the gliadin protein of wheat stimulates pituitary gland to release of prolactin that causes growth of breast tissue.   Other effects of over expression of aromatase is the amplification symptoms associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), which include increased moustache hair, higher testosterone levels, higher blood insulin, blood sugar and infertility.

There are other reasons to avoid grains, in particular wheat. Amylopectin A is a super starch, found in high levels in the new and improved dwarf wheat. It is in such quantities that it will cause blood sugar levels to soar. It is “worse than table sugar,” Dr. Davis says.

When the proteins in wheat are digested, they are converted into shorter proteins, “polypeptides”, called “exorphins”. These proteins are similar to endorphins released after exercise. They bind to the opioid receptors in the brain, giving a ‘high’, and they are addictive. Dr Hyman, doctor and author of many books, explains how these wheat polypeptides, called ‘gluteomorphins’ are absorbed into the bloodstream and cross the blood brain barrier. This can lead to multiple problems including schizophrenia, but they also cause addictive eating behaviours like cravings and bingeing. As he points out, rarely do people binge on broccoli, but they do binge on biscuits and cakes. So it is not just the sugar.

“We’ve been eating wheat for a millennia.” I hear you say. “We’re told it’s good for us.” This is the message we’ve been given in different ways from a variety of sources for a long time. The ‘big’ food, ‘big pharma’ industries and following the industrialisation of agriculture, big agri-business employ what only be described as predatory practices, they control the messages, control the print media, they control the advertising and the content on television and radio and they have taken control of the health industry. Money controls the message we are given. In effect doctors are trained by the pharmaceutical industry, medical regulation is not as autonomous as one would believe. In England, the British Medical Journal published a report identifying many areas of influence and distortion by the pharmaceutical industry. The House of Commons health committee set up to report on the influence of the pharmaceutical industry described how the industry taints doctors. Their report found over half of all postgraduate medical education in the UK, and much education of nurses, is funded by the pharmaceutical industry.

An analysis of 29 studies published by the Journal of the American Medical Association in 2000 found that doctors who accept fees, meals and other perks from drug makers are more likely to prescribe their brand of drugs. This can negatively affect patients because the medicines promoted by drug makers are usually newer, more expensive and potentially less safe than older medicines.

Drugs that need to be taken over a long period, i.e. over the remaining period of an individual’s life like statins are the lifeblood to the industry. Drugs that heal, short-term drugs to rectify a condition, like an infection, attract less interest. There isn’t the volume or profit so less money is spent on research and development.

As discussed wheat and grains are going to support all types of chronic disorders ranging from rheumatoid arthritis, high blood sugar, blood pressure, high cholesterol, cataracts and kidney disease, lupus, migraine, dementia, colon cancer and type 2 diabetes. By upsetting hormones grains will contribute to the development of polycystic ovaries, of infertility and many more conditions. No industry, whether it be the food industry, the pharmaceutical or agri-business is going to encourage the avoidance of grains to promote health and avoid chronic disease. It will be people on the ground who, when avoiding grains will begin to experience better health. It will these people that will slowly bring about change.

I urge you to consider a grain free diet for two months and see how you feel. Eat a variety of root vegetables, green leafy vegetables and of course, fruits and quality grass fed meats. I suggest seeking out organic foods where possible. The modern methods of farming many of todays foods unfortunately relies heavily on chemical use which is a whole new blog!

What do you know about autoimmunity?

Autoimmune disease can be simply defined as when the immune system attacks healthy cells in the body by mistake, a dysfunction of the immune system. Autoimmune diseases have been found in virtually every organ system in the body.  There are differing schools of thought as to how many conditions there are, but well over one hundred would not be exaggerating, and it’s rising. Some estimate that up to one in ten suffer from an autoimmune condition in the United States and many of them are unaware of their condition. Women are most likely to be affected. In some cases modern pharmaceuticals and medical practices do a good job of masking these conditions, treating the symptoms or keeping them under control, in other cases people just live with them and while no major organ is involved, they remain chronic.

The most common of the one hundred or more autoimmune conditions are:

  • Graves’ disease. 
  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. 
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). 
  • Type 1 diabetes. 
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS). 
  • Rheumatoid arthritis.

Other conditions include ones like Pernicious Anaemia – B12 deficiency – where the immune system destroys stomach cells that make intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor helps the body absorb vitamin B12 in the intestine.  Eczema has recently been included in the growing list of autoimmune conditions.  In this case the immune system causes changes to lipid formation in the skin which affects the skin’s barrier. Vasculitis is one of the connective tissue disorders and another of the autoimmune conditions. It damages blood vessels, weakening them which can lead to aneurysms. Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare disease in which the body’s own immune system attacks the liver and causes it to become inflamed which leads to cirrhosis, increasing the risk of cancer and liver failure.

Interestingly, the predisposition to develop or suffer from an autoimmune condition runs in the family. It may be hereditary, but if one member of the family has one condition, it doesn’t mean another member of the family will develop that same autoimmune condition.

What triggers an autoimmune response? There are a number of triggers and they range from a simple infection, bacterial or viral, to a chemical in the environment, a permeable gut lining and stress. When the condition has been diagnosed, most doctors will look at suppressing the immune system or treating the symptoms but it is critical to identify the trigger(s). For example in the case of type 1 diabetes the immune system has destroyed the function of the pancreas, but that’s not necessarily the end of it. Other autoimmune conditions develop, such as type 1 diabetes and celiac, because of a shared gene that predisposes for these conditions. About 25% of people with one autoimmune condition are likely to develop another.

My advice to someone diagnosed with an autoimmune condition is to reduce exposure to potential triggers. This means they should adopt a strict nutritional program, known as the Autoimmune Protocol, avoid stress and look at improving sleep hygiene, take steps to improve digestion and micronutrient absorption i.e. take enzymes and apple cider in water before a meal and take supplements, avoid exposure to environmental toxins and finally take exercise.  Some of these steps are easier said than done so careful preparation is necessary. The autoimmune protocol needs to be followed rigidly for at least a month before considering which foods to re-introduce. Foods like wheat however should never be reintroduced, but thats another story.

Please contact me if you would like some meal ideas for the autoimmune protocol, ways to improve sleep or how to avoid some of the toxins we’re exposed to everyday.


Controlling Inflammation with food

Mirriam Webster dictionary define inflammation, and i quote “as a local response to cellular injury that is marked by capillary dilatation, leukocytic infiltration, redness, heat, pain, swelling.” This cellular injury can be caused by a number of things from oxygen deprivation, as a response to chemicals or drugs, as a result of a physical event as in an accident, from an infection or immune response like autoimmune thyroid condition, Hashimoto’s, to genetic issues, e.g. Downs syndrome or even to nutritional imbalances – e.g. very common these days, atherosclerosis.

How best to reduce the inflammation and associated pain without the use steroids and NSAIDs anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen which can cause gastrointestinal damage and heart attack?     Proteolytic Enzymes will help.  This article in Nutrition Review explains, they increase the “appetite” of macrophages, a large white blood cell that consumes bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites and increases the potency of natural killer (NK) cells. They also degrade pathogens that might inhibit normal immune function. Amongst other things they increase blood flow and break down cellular debris, which makes them easier for the lymphatic system to remove and thus reduce swelling.

Proteolytic enzymes can be bought in a tablet form. Wobenzym is one that I have used. However these enzymes can be found in foods and my favourite source would be pineapple, pawpaw, ginger and kiwi fruit. I advocate a smoothie made from pineapple and ginger with a teaspoon of honey (also full of enzymes), if necessary, a couple of times a day.   I also recommend eating some raw fruit or vegetables with each meal to supply enzymes to help with digestion.

Try a smoothie, experiment with raw food until you find what you like and see how it helps with any inflammation.

The Gut Microbiome and chronic illness


I’ve been working with someone recently who has been suffering with a number of chronic health issues. He is not alone. There are increasing numbers of people in today’s society who suffer from an ever-increasing range of chronic health issues. Defined as a condition that lasts for more than 3 months, chronic illness includes obesity, diabetes, allergies, heart disease, kidney disease, alzheimer’s, cancer and arthritis. These conditions are linked to inflammation and efficacy of our immune system which is inexorably linked to our gut microbiome and its reduced species diversity.

The 2014-15 National Health Survey indicated that 50% of all Australians had a chronic health issue and this rose to 60% in the 65 year-old bracket. The survey found that chronic conditions accounted for around 9 in every 10 deaths in Australia in 2015. This survey was based on self-reporting and so the figures might be even higher as people fail to understand that they actually have a condition, as their symptoms are so minor. A friend recently told me he was fit and healthy, dismissing the psoriasis I noticed as ‘nothing’.  Psoriasis is an inflammatory autoimmune condition.

The considerable interest and number of recent research on the microbiome, show that in the modern world our diet and environmental exposure to microbes is severely limited. Whilst our diet might be a little more diverse than the average slum dwelling Indian, our exposure to microbes from the environment is not. However it is generally understood that in order to encourage a healthy, diverse microbiome we need to consume a healthy, balanced and diverse diet.  However the modern diet is not diverse and consequently the species diversity of our microbiome is lacking. The much studied Hadza tribes of Tanzania eat a rich variety of foods also have higher levels of microbial diversity and biodiversity.  Our modern diet is not healthy or balanced meaning the number of species is low and the many functions of a healthy microbiome, like breaking down foods into more useful nutrients, producing chemicals that act as neurotransmitters and regulating the immune system are not fulfilled as effectively as they might be.  Moreover the colonisation by harmful bacteria and viruses is facilitated instead of opposed.

So the loss of species diversity in the gut is associated with increased chronic health issues. Dysbiosis refers to an imbalance in the species of the microbiome, an increase in the more harmful with a reduction in the beneficial bacteria.  The balance and composition of microbes in the gut microbiota changes regularly. Probiotics and fibre rich foods encourage the beneficial bacteria. Processed foods and sugar rich foods encourage the less desirable microbes, as does exposure to environmental toxins. The composition of the gut microbiota changes with diet, age, stress levels and environment.

Manipulating the gut microbiota will be the future of managing chronic illness.

Histamines – can they be the cause of my symptoms? It’s complicated.

Histamine is a chemical involved in your immune system, proper digestion, and your central nervous system. As a neurotransmitter, it communicates important messages from your body to your brain. It is also a component of stomach acid, which is what helps you break down food in your stomach.

You might be most familiar with histamine as it relates to the immune system. If you’ve suffered from food allergies or even seasonal allergies you may have noticed that antihistamine medications like Zytrec, Allegra or Benedryl provide quick relief of your symptoms. This is because histamine’s role in the body is to cause an immediate inflammatory response.  Histamine causes your blood vessels to swell, or dilate, so that your white blood cells can quickly find and attack the infection or problem. The histamine buildup is what gives you a headache and leaves you feeling flushed, itchy and miserable. This is part of the body’s natural immune response, but if you don’t break down histamine properly, you could develop what we call histamine intolerance.

Because it travels throughout your bloodstream, histamine can affect your gut, lungs, skin, brain, and entire cardiovascular system, contributing to a wide range of problems often making it difficult to pinpoint and diagnose.

Common symptoms of histamine intolerance include:

  • Headaches/migraines
  • Difficulty falling asleep, easily arousal
  • Hypertension
  • Vertigo or dizziness
  • Arrhythmia, or accelerated heart rate
  • Difficulty regulating body temperature
  • Anxiety
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Flushing
  • Nasal congestion, sneezing, difficulty breathing
  • Abnormal menstrual cycle
  • Hives
  • Fatigue
  • Tissue swelling

What Causes High Histamine Levels?

  • Allergies (IgE reactions)
  • Bacterial overgrowth(SIBO)
  • Leaky gut
  • GI bleeding
  • Fermented alcohol like wine, champagne, and beer
  • Diamine Oxidase(DAO) deficiency
  • Histamine-rich foods

In addition to the histamine produced inside your body, there are also a variety of foods that naturally contain histamine, cause the release of histamine, or block the enzyme that breaks down histamine, diamine oxidase.

  • Histamine-Rich Foods:
  • Fermented alcoholic beverages, especially wine, champagne and beer
  • Fermented foods: sauerkraut, vinegar, soy sauce, kefir, yogurt, kombucha, etc
  • Vinegar-containing foods: pickles, mayonnaise, olives
  • Cured meats: bacon, salami, pepperoni, luncheon meats and hot dogs
  • Soured foods: sour cream, sour milk, buttermilk, soured bread, etc
  • Dried fruit: apricots, prunes, dates, figs, raisins
  • Most citrus fruits
  • Aged cheese including goat cheese
  • Nuts: walnuts, cashews, and peanuts
  • Vegetables: avocados, eggplant, spinach, and tomatoes
  • Smoked fish and certain species of fish: mackerel, mahi-mahi, tuna, anchovies, sardines
  • Histamine-Releasing Foods:
  • Alcohol
  • Bananas
  • Chocolate
  • Cow’s Milk
  • Nuts
  • Papaya
  • Pineapple
  • Shellfish
  • Strawberries
  • Tomatoes
  • Wheat Germ
  • Many artificial preservatives and dyes
  • DAO-Blocking Foods:
  • Alcohol
  • Energy drinks
  • Black tea
  • Mate tea
  • Green tea

Don’t give up!  Here is a list of low histamine foods. Just remember though that freshness is vital if you have histamine intolerance!

Low-histamine foods:

  • freshly cooked meat, poultry (frozen or fresh)
  • fresh fish
  • eggs
  • gluten-free grains: rice, quinoa
  • pure peanut butter
  • fresh fruits: mango, pear, watermelon, apple, kiwi, cantaloupe, grapes
  • fresh vegetables (except tomatoes, spinach, avocado, and eggplant)
  • dairy substitutes: coconut milk, rice milk, hemp milk, almond milk
  • cooking oils: olive oil, coconut oil
  • leafy herbs
  • some herbal teas

Once formed, histamine is either stored or broken down by an enzyme. Histamine in the digestive tract is broken down primarily by diamine oxidase (DAO). The American Society for Clinical Nutrition found that DAO is the main enzyme responsible for breaking down ingested histamine.   Low DAO can be caused by –

  • Gluten intolerance
  • Leaky gut
  • SIBO
  • DAO-blocking foods: alcohol, energy drinks, and tea
  • Genetic mutations (common in people of Asian-descent)
  • Inflammation from Crohn’s, ulcerative colitis, and inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Medications:
  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, aspirin)
  • Antidepressants (Cymbalta, Effexor, Prozac, Zoloft)
  • Immune modulators (Humira, Enbrel, Plaquenil)
  • Antiarrhythmics (propanolol, metaprolol, Cardizem, Norvasc)
  • Antihistamines (Allegra, Zyrtec, Benadryl)
  • Histamine (H2) blockers (Tagamet, Pepcid, Zantac)
  • Although histamine blockers, a class of acid-reducing drugs, seem like they would help prevent histamine intolerance, these medications can actually deplete DAO levels in your body.

Testing for Histamine Intolerance

  • Elimination/Reintroduction
  • Remove the above high histamine foods for 30 days and reintroduce them one at a time.
  • Blood Testing

I recommend a test like the one these labs offer to test for histamine levels and DAO levels. A high ratio of histamine/DAO signifies that you are ingesting too much histamine and that you don’t have enough DAO to break it down.

  • Trial of DAO supplements
  • If testing is unavailable to you, you could simply try a diet low in histamine and add DAO supplementation at each meal. If your symptoms resolve, you could have low DAO.

How to Treat Histamine Intolerance?

Remove the high histamine foods for 1-3 months and add in supplements of DAO. Most importantly, find the root cause for the histamine intolerance. If you’re on a medication that is causing the intolerance, work with your physician to see if it is possible to wean off of these medications. The main causes are likely to SIBO (Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth) and gluten intolerance, which cause a leaky gut. In this case, I suggest reading about how to heal the gut and over time you should be able to stop the DAO and go back to eating histamine-containing foods.

If you’re currently suffering from histamine intolerance, you may not have to avoid these foods forever. It can be a short-term solution until your histamine or DAO levels return to their optimal ranges. Depending on your situation – which is always unique, you may find that you tolerate some foods better than others.



Low Stomach acid – how would you know?

Our ability to digest our food is reduced as we age and one of the main reasons is that we produce less and less stomach acid. So many symptoms we attribute to a, so-called ‘normal’ ageing process, is actually because we have reduced levels of stomach acid. We are simply unable to breakdown proteins, carbohydrates and fats. We are unable to absorb vitamins and minerals as they become less available. This leads to a variety of conditions like heartburn, bloating, flatulence and diarrhoea, post adolescence acne and a few more but also some disorders which are more serious

Addison’s Disease
Celiac Disease
Chronic Autoimmune Disorders
Food Allergies
Gall Bladder Disease
Gastric Cancer
Graves Disease
Pernicious Anemia
Acne rosacea
Ulcerative Colitis
Hair Loss
Multiple Sclerosis
Rheumatoid Arthritis

How can you test for low stomach acid?

Well there is a test, not that reliable but if you did every morning for 3 mornings in as row and got consistent results it might indicate a result.

  • Mix ¼ teaspoon of baking soda in a small glass of water first thing in the morning before anything else.
  • Drink the solution
  • Time how long it takes you to burp. Time up to 5 minutes.

If you have enough stomach acid you’d likely burp in two or three minutes, after that or no burp would indicate low stomach acid.

A little apple cider vinegar in a little water before a meal can be useful, otherwise consider taking Betaine with HCl.

Check out this paper from Nutrition Review